How to choose a timeframe for trading?

How long should you hold your trades?

It often happens
that the abundance of timeframes makes traders perplexed. On the one hand, it’s
possible to lose a great deal of time while checking all the timeframes.
Moreover, technical analysis of different timeframes may provide confusing

On the other hand,
a lazy trader who uses only one timeframe will likely miss something. For
example, he/she won’t see an important support or resistance level that would
be evident if he/she gazed at a higher timeframe. Is there a solution
to this conundrum? The happy middle ground?

Make a distinction

To begin with,
it’s important to distinguish between the so-called high/large/big timeframes
(H4, D1, W1, MN) and the low/small ones (M30, M15, M5) with H1 as the
borderline between these two categories. When you make a trade, it’s enough to
concentrate on one of these groups.

The factors you
need to take into account while making this choice include the time you have
for trading, as well as your personal preferences and your analytical tools of

The thing may seem
counterintuitive but the more time you can spend on trading, the smaller
timeframes you will be able to use. Surprised? The picture on low timeframes
changes pretty fast. As a result, to trade on them one would need to be on the
constant alert.

In addition, the
overall number of pips gained in a single trade won’t be big, so many trades
throughout the day would be required to scalp profit from the market. A big
number of trades, however small, requires time. If you have other daytime
endeavors and can opt only for several trades a week, large timeframes should
be your choice.

In addition, make
sure that use your personal strengths in trading because it’s a truly unique
resource you possess. For instance, if you have a high tolerance for stress,
then you will do fine on smaller timeframes. You will be able to make a lot of
trading decisions fast and enjoy the alive pulsating market. On the other hand,
if your virtue is patience and you are strong in market analysis, you can do
swing or position trading using bigger timeframes.

To sum up, there
are no good or bad timeframes. Small timeframes will let you open more trades
and trade on the news. Large timeframes will help to eliminate the market noise
and catch fewer but bigger moves of the price.

Make a combo

The basic logic of different timeframes is that the bigger the
timeframes is, the more weight it carries. In other words, a “Head and
shoulders” pattern on the weekly chart should take priority over an uptrend on
1-hour chart. It means that you should check the bigger timeframe first and
then try to figure out how the dynamics you see on smaller timeframes fits in.

It’s clear that a single timeframe doesn’t offer enough information to
enter a high-probability trade. It either focuses on too small a period of time
or lacks details about the current price action. This is why multiple timeframe
analysis is strongly approved by the common wisdom of Forex traders. The
natural question is “How many timeframes to use”?

So far, the best answer was given by the famous trader Alexander Elder
who proposed a simple system of 3 screens (3 timeframes). The aim of this
system is to provide traders with the logic of analyzing different timeframes
and to filter the good trade signals from the bad ones.

Here’s the algorithm of action proposed by Elder:

  1. Screen #1. This is the biggest timeframe you
    analyze. Use this chart to determine the trend. You will open trades only
    in the direction of the trend on this timeframe (buy in an uptrend, sell
    in a downtrend). The means recommended by Elder for spotting a trend are
    13 EMA and MACD for confirmation.
  2. Screen #2. This is a 1-degree smaller timeframe
    compared with the one used for screen #1. Here you need to find the end of
    correction within the general trend observed at screen #1. To do that, use
    an oscillator, for instance, Stochastic. If there’s an uptrend on screen
    #1, wait until the Stochastic Oscillator leaves the oversold area on
    screen #2.
  3. Screen #3. This is a 1-degree smaller timeframe
    compared with the one used for screen #2. It’s here that you should open
    your trade. To make the entry as precise as possible, Elder recommends
    placing a Buy Stop 1-2 pips above the high of the previous candlestick to
    catch a breakout to the upside. If the pair goes down without triggering
    your order, move your Buy Stop to the area 1-2 pips above the next

The idea behind this system is actually more important than its details.
The key thing is that you can use it to design a trading system of your own. No
matter which tools of analysis you choose to use (price action, indicators),
you need to pick 3 working timeframes (W1-D1-H4, D1-H4-H1, H4-H1-M30, or
M30-M15-M5) and move from the biggest to the smallest one while analyzing the
market. The fractal nature of the market leads to the fact that price action on
smaller timeframes is a part of price action on bigger timeframes. If you are
armed with this plan, you won’t get lost and you will be able to see the market
from just enough viewpoints.

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British government to activate full ‘no-deal’ Brexit preparations

LONDON (Reuters) – Prime Minister Theresa May and her ministers will on Tuesday step up preparations for a “no deal” Brexit, an outcome made more likely by a deadlock in parliament over the British leader’s divorce deal with the European Union.

Demonstrators hold EU and Union flags during an anti-Brexit protest opposite the Houses of Parliament in London, Britain, December 17, 2018. REUTERS/Toby Melville

With just over 100 days until Britain is due to leave the EU, May is yet to win the support of a deeply divided parliament for the deal she struck last month with Brussels to maintain close ties with the bloc.

She has said a delayed vote on her deal will take place in mid-January, prompting some lawmakers to accuse her of trying to force parliament into backing it by running close to the March 29 exit day.

May, who last week survived a confidence vote within her Conservative Party, has warned lawmakers that the alternatives to her deal are leaving without an agreement or no Brexit.

“We’re going to be discussing ‘no deal’ planning today,” International Development Secretary Penny Mordaunt told reporters. “It’s absolutely right that we step up ‘no deal’ planning now. Not only do we need to prepare the country, but it’s also the best way that we will ensure that we get a deal.”

This month, Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Hammond said he had made more than 4.2 billion pounds available for Brexit planning since the 2016 referendum and would be allocating a further 2 billion pounds to government departments.

May’s spokesman said that would be done “shortly”.

Britain’s economy has slowed since the 2016 referendum vote to leave the EU and there is no guarantee that businesses and consumers will retain tariff-free access to European goods after Brexit.


The British Chambers of Commerce forecast on Tuesday that economic growth this year and in 2019 looks set to be the weakest since Britain emerged from recession in 2009, due to a freeze in business investment and weak consumer demand ahead of Brexit.

Parliament is at an impasse over Brexit, with factions pressing for different options for future ties, leaving without a deal or remaining in the EU.

May is seeking assurances from the EU over the so-called Northern Irish “backstop” – an insurance policy to prevent the return of a hard border between the British province and EU-member Ireland that its critics fear will trap Britain in a customs union with the EU indefinitely.

With the EU unlikely to offer concessions that would win over lawmakers and May repeatedly ruling out a second referendum, the risk of a no-deal has increased, a scenario that would mean an abrupt exit with no transition that some businesses fear would be catastrophic for the world’s fifth largest economy.

Housing Minister James Brokenshire told BBC Radio the government was making no-deal preparations “reluctantly.”

“It’s not what we want to do, it’s not what we still expect to do because we want to see the deal secured, the vote through parliament, but I think it is right and proper that we maintain our work on preparing for a no-deal,” he said.

“I’m not going to try and pretend otherwise that we’re not stepping up our preparations for no-deal … There will clearly be consequences of a no-deal in the short term.”

Slideshow (3 Images)

Mike Amey, head of sterling portfolios at fund management giant PIMCO, said there was “low probability” of no-deal as there was not a majority of lawmakers who would accept it.

Britain would be more likely to extend or revoke its Article 50 notice to leave the EU, he said. May has so far ruled out doing so.

Editing by Janet Lawrence

Who will be the next Man Utd manager? Who will replace Jose Mourinho?

Zidane, Simeone, Pochettino? Who could replace Jose Mourinho?

Manchester United will appoint a caretaker manager to succeed the sacked Jose Mourinho before their next Premier League game with Cardiff on Saturday.

Former Red Devils striker Ole Gunnar Solskjaer is one name under consideration to take charge for the rest of the season – as the club look to restructure with a technical director of football and a new permanent boss in the summer.

Who do they want and what do they want?

United’s wishlist is for someone who can:

  • Get the most out of United’s big-money signings and create an identifiable style.
  • Develop young players.
  • Understand the philosophy, culture and core values of the club including its attacking traditions.
  • Create a positive environment with players and staff.
  • Work within a new structure, including reporting to a technical director of football.

So who might that be?

Mauricio Pochettino

He will be top of the list. His Tottenham side play attractive football, and he has spent very little in comparison to his Premier League rivals.

Spurs are largely built around players he didn’t sign, but Pochettino has a reputation for extracting the maximum out of the squad he has and has been credited with developing several young English players at the core of Gareth Southgate’s vibrant, exciting national side.

He’s known to have a human touch with players and staff, plus he already works under a chairman – Daniel Levy – who operates almost like a technical director.

Real Madrid were also interested in him last summer and though they have Santiago Solari in place until 2021, those rumours persist. So could it be a heavyweight clash between Real and United for the services of the highly rated Argentine?

Pochettino only signed a new five-year contract at Spurs last summer and still appears to been on an upward curve at a club set to make a delayed move into a new stadium. If he could be prized out of Levy’s clutches, expect any club to pay at least £20m to release him from that deal.

At a news conference on Tuesday, Pochettino simply sent his “best wishes” to Mourinho. Asked about being a “perfect fit” for United, he replied: “A lot of rumours that happen in my position at Tottenham – I cannot answer that type of question. I am focused on doing the best I can here.”

Pochettino remains ‘focused’ at Tottenham after Mourinho sacking

Zinedine Zidane

Three Champions League titles in three years managing one of the biggest clubs in the world at Real Madrid. How’s that for a managerial CV?

Zidane has been linked with United since he walked out of the Bernabeu in May – and there’s a train of thought he’d be able to get the best out of fellow Frenchmen Paul Pogba and Anthony Martial.

But there remains questions over his technical coaching ability and development of young players, having inherited a team of global superstars at Madrid.

He’d also be expensive in terms of wages – but given United have just spent upwards of £18m to sack Mourinho, is any fee for any manager much of an issue in order to get it right?

But if Zidane was the club’s top choice, why would they need to wait until the end of the season?

Diego Simeone

United have spoken to the Atletico Madrid boss before during previous managerial searches.

But is he the right man to follow Mourinho, given his similarly combustible reputation and functional, effective style of football?

Simeone is tactically well organised, has punched above weight in La Liga with Atletico, and is great at creating a siege mentality like Ferguson and even Mourinho at their best.

That’s something United fans embrace – so long as it is ‘us versus them’ and not ‘me versus them’.

Who will be the caretaker manager?

The club want to reset and get a feel-good factor back, with the team playing ‘the United way’. Have they accepted they are not going to finish in the top four of the Premier League? If so, is this style over substance?

The next man in line will be someone synonymous with United, and who the players will enjoy working with. They will understand the demands of the club and will get the fans onside.

Assistant manager Michael Carrick and academy director Nicky Butt have been ruled out. So who are the candidates as it stands?

Ole Gunnar Solskjaer

The Norwegian is definitely under consideration. A huge crowd favourite from his time as a player and high up on the bookies’ lists for a temporary solution. A coach at United and reserve-team boss from May 2008 to December 2010, he is steeped in the club’s history.

Solskjaer left to manage former club Molde in Norway, then led Cardiff in the Premier League in 2014 before returning to Norway.

He could be available short-term given the Norwegian season has just finished – and only restarts in March. He has just signed a new contract with Molde until 2021 – but could United pay a fee to ‘borrow’ their Treble-winning icon?

Laurent Blanc

The Frenchman is also top of many bookies’ lists. He spent two years at United at the end of his career and has built a positive reputation as a coach.

Blanc has managed at the top level with Paris St-Germain but is he really synonymous with the club and does he understand the traditions? Also, he has never managed in English football. He looks an outsider.

Steve Bruce

A long shot. United’s first Premier League-winning captain in 1992-93 and, unlike former team-mates Mark Hughes and Paul Ince, his playing and managerial career hasn’t taken him to a bitter rival.

He has worked with former United assistant manager Mike Phelan so could renew that partnership. But would that appointment really capture fans’ imagination as he left more than 20 years ago?

Carlos Queiroz

A valued and influential part of legendary manager Sir Alex Ferguson’s backroom team, credited with being largely responsible for the development of Portugal great Cristiano Ronaldo… but currently in charge of Iran heading for the Asia Cup.

Ryan Giggs

The United legend was overlooked for the top job – other than on a very short-term basis – despite being at the club when both David Moyes and Louis van Gaal left. Now manager of a youthful Wales side. Another long shot.

Eric Cantona

One for the romantics. Not a coach in his own right and has been out of the game for a long time. Occasionally quoted as saying he’d love to manage United, but has to be a huge outsider.

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Pittsburgh to propose tighter gun laws after synagogue attack

FILE PHOTO: Vigil attendees comfort one another outside the Tree of Life synagogue, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S., November 3, 2018. REUTERS/Alan Freed/File Photo

(Reuters) – The Pittsburgh city council on Tuesday was due to introduce a package of gun-control laws including a ban on assault-style rifles, nearly two months after a gunman shouting anti-Semitic messages killed 11 people in a synagogue.

The measure would also ban certain types of ammunition and allow courts to ban gun ownership by people deemed to pose a significant threat of violence.

“As gun violence escalates across the country, it would be unconscionable for me to stand by and do nothing,” Councilman Corey O’Connor, one of the legislation’s authors, said in a statement. O’Connor represents Squirrel Hill, the neighborhood where the massacre at the Tree of Life synagogue took place.

Assault-style weapons, with the capacity to fire multiple rounds in a short period of time, have played a significant role in the series of deadly mass shootings the United States has experienced in recent years.

Gun-rights advocates opposed the measures and threatened legal action if they passed.

The Allegheny County Sportsmen’s League and Firearm Owners Against Crime noted that a state law forbids local governments from enacting stricter gun laws than those in place statewide. The groups also said the proposal would violate the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

Robert Bowers, 46, is accused of shooting and killing 11 worshippers at Pittsburgh’s Tree of Life Synagogue on Oct. 27, using a legally purchased assault-style rifle and three handguns. He has pleaded not guilty.

(This corrects to say council will introduce the legislation, not vote on it.

Reporting by Gabriella Borter in New York; Editing by Scott Malone and David Gregorio

Explainer – Brexit basics: What is Brexit and why does it matter?

LONDON (Reuters) – The United Kingdom is due to leave the European Union on March 29, 2019. The date is set in law – the 2018 Withdrawal Act – but the divorce has been plunged into chaos.

FILE PHOTO – Protesters participating in an anti-Brexit demonstration march sit at the base of Nelson’s Column, in Trafalgar Square, in central London, Britain October 20, 2018. REUTERS/Henry Nicholls

Below is an explainer of the Brexit basics:


A blending of “Britain” and “exit,” it is the description of the United Kingdom’s decision to leave the European Union. The word was coined by former lawyer Peter Wilding four years before the vote took place.

The EU, initially an attempt to tie Germany and France together and prevent another major European war, is now a group of 28 countries which trade and allow their citizens to move between the countries to live and work.

In the June 23, 2016 referendum, 17.4 million voters, or 52 percent, backed leaving while 16.1 million, or 48 percent, backed staying in the bloc.

The campaign was among the most divisive waged in Britain with accusations of lying and scare-mongering on both sides.

Supporters of remaining in the EU were accused of exaggerating threats to the economy. The pro-Brexit camp was accused of misleading voters about how much extra money could be spent on healthcare and stoking fears about immigration.

A week before the vote, a pro-EU member of parliament died after being stabbed and shot in the street.


Pro-Europeans fear Britain’s exit will weaken the West as it grapples with Donald Trump’s unpredictable U.S. presidency and growing assertiveness from Russia and China. It weakens Europe’s economy and removes one of its only two nuclear powers.

A disorderly Brexit would hammer the United Kingdom’s economy, the world’s fifth largest, and could disrupt trade in Europe and beyond. The shock of a chaotic Brexit would roil financial markets.

Brexit supporters say while there may be some short-term disruption, in the long-term the UK will thrive outside what they cast as a doomed experiment in German-dominated unity and excessive debt-funded welfare spending.


The vote to leave the EU followed decades of discussion about how close the United Kingdom should be to the bloc.

Britain refused to join the forerunner to the EU, the European Economic Community, when it was founded in 1957. When it did decide to join, its attempts were vetoed twice by France.

The UK became a member in 1973, only to have a crisis of confidence that led to an exit referendum two years later. Britons voted 67 to 33 percent to stay in the club in 1975.

But opposition, which partly reflected an ambivalence grounded in Britain’s imperial past, stiffened as European leaders sought greater economic and political integration. Britain never joined Europe’s currency, the euro, or participated in the EU’s Schengen Area open-borders agreement.

Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher threatened to halt payments to the EU unless Britain got a refund. But her opposition to greater European integration led to her being ousted in a party coup.

In an attempt to end splits in his Conservative Party, the former Prime Minister David Cameron held the 2016 “in-out” referendum.


Supporters of Brexit. They say leaving will give the United Kingdom back control over its own destiny and allow it to exploit global economic opportunities beyond Europe.

They argue the United Kingdom will save billions of pounds in membership fees, regain control of its economic policies and regulations and the right to restrict immigration from countries in the EU.


Opponents of Brexit. They say leaving will hammer the British economy and diminish the United Kingdom’s global clout.

As a bloc, the EU is Britain’s most important trading partner and its greatest source of foreign direct investment. Remainers say an exit will disrupt trade and dislocate supply chains in Europe and beyond.


After months of negotiation, British Prime Minister Theresa May reached agreement on the terms of Britain’s departure with EU leaders. But her plan to accept EU customs rules on goods while ending free movement of people has drawn criticism from both pro-Brexit and pro-EU lawmakers, the Northern Irish DUP party, which props up her minority government, and members of the opposition.

May says the choice before parliament is her deal, no deal or no Brexit.

FILE PHOTO – Anti-Brexit protesters are reflected in a puddle as they demonstrate opposite the Houses of Parliament in London, Britain, April 30, 2018. REUTERS/Simon Dawson


The lack of support in parliament for May’s divorce deal has stirred interest in the possibility that Britain may hold a second vote on whether to stay or leave.

May has ruled out a second referendum. The main opposition Labour Party is also sceptical, fearing another vote would divide supporters.

If parliament did agree to hold another referendum, Britain would have to ask for an extension to the timetable for leaving the EU to allow enough time to hold the vote.

Reporting By Andrew MacAskill; Editing by Guy Faulconbridge and Janet Lawrence

Tinsel tales: Decades old Christmas trees and baubles

Steve Rose with his Christmas treeImage copyright

Image caption

Steve Rose wants someone else to be able to enjoy the simple Christmas he did

One of the first mass-produced Christmas trees which stayed in one family for 80 years is being sold at auction later this week.

Steve Rose, 74, felt it was time to say a fond farewell to the tree which has been decorated every year at the family home in Markham, near Caerphilly, since 1937.

But while he was keen for a new family to have a vintage Christmas, these readers are still hanging on to their old trees and decorations.

The Christmas tree in the same room for 92 years

Image copyright
Derek Stanton

Image caption

Derek Stanton has put his tree up every Christmas for 92 years

Derek Stanton’s three daughters are under strict instructions – they must never get rid of his Christmas tree.

The 92-year-old was born on 5 December 1926 and his mother Winifred and father Job decided to buy one of the first mass-produced Christmas trees from the local Woolworths in Ilkeston for his first Christmas.

It has been brought out every December since then and placed lovingly in the same living room – Derek and his wife Henrietta, 88, still live in his family home.

“It brings back so many memories for him,” said his youngest daughter, Sally, 52.

Image copyright

Image caption

Derek Stanton’s parents bought their tree for his first Christmas

“You can imagine why it’s so important to him – it’s been there since he was born.

“He said we have to put it up when he’s gone. His dad had said to him “never throw it away” and he never has. And he’s told us the same.

“My grandfather was a bit sentimental and I think my dad is the same.”

Sally was with her parents last week when they put up the tiny tree for the 92nd year.

“When I was younger, we always used to have a big, real tree in the parlour and dad’s tiny tree in the living room,” she said.

“It is always exciting getting out the tiny baubles to decorate it. He still has some of those too, although quite a few have broken.

“The tree isn’t in bad condition, although we have to stick a few of the branches back on with Sellotape. But dad tells everyone about his tree and they all love it.”

‘We have 60 Father Christmases for every year of marriage’

Image copyright
Sally Evans

Image caption

Sally’s 70-year-old finger puppet from Woolworths sits on their mantelpiece

For every year of their 60 years of marriage, Sally Evans and her husband buy a new Father Christmas to add to their home decorations in Newport.

The festive collection cover every piece of furniture, from peeping behind corners of picture frames, hanging from lights and sitting by the television.

“They remind me of the first year we were married,” she said.

“When we were married, we had very little money wise but we would struggle.

“It is important to keep up the tradition for the kids – my daughter buys one every year too now.”

Among the display is a 70-year-old Santa finger puppet from Woolworths she says takes pride place on the mantelpiece.

‘Baubles remind me of my late daughter’

Image copyright
Jeanette Phillips

Image caption

Jeanette Phillips still uses the glass baubles on her Christmas tree

Getting baubles for the Christmas tree in the early 1950s brightened up the festive decorations in Jeanette Phillips’ childhood home.

“We used to cut down a real tree from the local woods and decorate it with small candles as there were no electric lights back then,” said the 71-year-old, from Hook, Pembrokeshire.

“However, my father never lit the candles as he was afraid the tree would catch fire – he was quite safety conscious, which I suppose was a good thing.

“I remember my parents buying our first Christmas baubles when I was about six – and I still have them now.

“They are very tiny so they go at the top of our Christmas tree even now – alongside decorations bought when my children were little. The eldest is 48 now!”

Image copyright
Jeanette Phillips

Image caption

Jeanette Phillips has fond memories of her children, Andrew and Jayne, decorating the tree

Jeanette loves bringing our her old decorations – and the memories they bring back are all the more poignant after her 19-year-old daughter Jayne died in a car crash.

“The baubles are all stored in an old food mixer box which my husband and I were given as a wedding present nearly 50 years ago – now it has scribbles and notes which Jayne made on it over the years,” she said.

Image copyright
Jeanette Phillips

Image caption

Jeanette’s storage box, which is nearly 50 years old, is adorned with notes by her daughter

“And I even wrap the glass decorations individually in kitchen towel that must date back to the 1970s – it’s orange!

“I keep using them as they bring back so many happy memories – such nostalgia.

Image copyright
Jeanette Phillips

Image caption

The delicate baubles are individually wrapped in orange kitchen towel

‘I love my 69-year-old Christmas lights’

Image copyright
Stephen Taylor

Stephen Taylor has a set of Rico Christmas lights bought in 1949 and they still work perfectly.

“My mum and dad bought them for my elder brother John’s first Christmas – he’s 69 years old now,” said the 63-year-old from Manchester.

“They are quite special as they hold a lot of family memories – I lost my mum when I was 12 but we had lots of brilliant family Christmases.

“They are in their original box – it’s a little bit tatty but it’s not bad considering its age. I have got the lights now as I inherited the family home when my brother got married and moved out.”

Image copyright
Stephen Taylor

Stephen says the lights have stood the test of time – with the odd replacement bulb.

“The lights themselves are as good as new,” he said.

“They started to get a bit erratic a few years ago – some of the bulbs started to go and I would replace the odd one and it would cause another bulb to blow.

“But then with the dawn of the internet I managed to find the firm that made the original bulbs – so I got new replacements.

Image copyright
Stephen Taylor

Image caption

Stephen Taylor (left) with his older brother John, whose first Christmas was celebrated with the purchase of the lights

“I use them every year without a problem and get a lot of people asking me where I got them from as they hang above my mantelpiece.

“I say to them “you won’t be able to find them now”. It’s amazing really – we live in such a disposable society and most people probably get new lights every few years. But these have kept going.”

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Stephen Taylor

‘This tree will bring back so many happy memories’

Image copyright
Liz Mostyn Jones

Liz Mostyn Jones still has the artificial Christmas tree her parents bought for her first Christmas back in 1961.

“I lost [dad] five years ago and my dear mum in September this year, so this will be my first Christmas without them both,” said the 57-year-old, from Llandudno.

“This little tree will bring back so many very special and happy memories of Christmas with them both.”

‘Seeing it for the first time, my eyes nearly popped out’

Image copyright
Herbert Hatley

Joyce Hatley’s artificial Christmas tree is nearly as old as her, at 82 years old.

Her parents bought the tree when she was three years old and set it up as a surprise while she slept.

“My mum and dad went out to do Christmas shopping and they hadn’t got a tree,” said Joyce, from Windermere.

“But, at the last minute, a big lorry came with big artificial trees on it and they got one.”

“They set it up at night when I was asleep. My mum said that when we got up in the morning and I saw it, my eyes nearly popped out.

“We’ve had it now for years and years. Every year it is put up with the same things decorating it.

“We have two daughters and they loved the tree. We did say a while back that it was getting broken down and we would have to throw it out and our daughters said we just couldn’t do that.

“It was really battered from all the years we had it so my husband, Herbert, was able to restore it and do it up again. It has lots of wonderful memories for me.”

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This city already shows what life will be like in a world heated by climate change

It’s become more clear than ever this year that climate change is very real and that we are already seeing the effects.

A new report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released in October detailed how even just half a degree of rise in the world’s temperature would result in severe, catastrophic effects.

As Business Insider’s Kevin Loria summed up:

That half of a degree will make drought-prone regions much more likely to experience severe drought, and areas prone to heat waves or intense hurricanes will get more of those disasters, too.

These factors could trigger huge migrations of people and mass extinctions of animals.

In short, the climate will get a lot less livable, particularly in places already vulnerable to high temperatures.

As I hung out in Dubai last month, it struck me that the city’s severe climate and its adaptation to that climate was a good approximation of what I imagine living with the severe effects of climate change to be.

During Dubai’s long summer, stretching from mid-April through October, temperatures make it unbearable to be outside for more than a few minutes. Temperatures are regularly around 105 degrees Fahrenheit (41 degrees Celsius) and have gone as high as 119 degrees Fahrenheit (48 degrees Celsius), with plenty of humidity.

The city’s adaptation to that climate? A proliferation of interconnected climate-controlled spaces, including more than 65 malls, residential and office buildings with entire indoor cities attached, metros, and indoor parking lots.

For a certain social millieu – I’m talking native Emiratis and the wealthy expats with white-collar jobs – one could go entire days or weeks during the summer without stepping outside. You go from your air-conditioned apartment in a residential skyscraper to the indoor parking lot, and then drive to your office, park in the indoor lot, and head upstairs to the office skyscraper.

If you need to do grocery shopping or pick up a present, there are likely retail stores, grocery stores, or an entire retail complex attached to your office building or apartment building.

If you want to spend a Saturday out with your family, grab coffee with a colleague, or enjoy an “al fresco” dinner and a movie, you are likely doing it inside at The Dubai Mall, a US$2 billion complex with 1,200 stores, hundreds of restaurants, a movie theatre, a luxury hotel, an Olympic-size ice-skating rink, a virtual-reality theme park, and an aquarium.

Or, perhaps you’ll visit one of Dubai’s dozens of other megamalls with similar amenities that blur the line between mall and city block.

Meanwhile, for the hundreds of thousands of migrant workers in Dubai who aren’t lucky enough to live in air-conditioned megacomplexes, Dubai can be a hellscape during the summer – just as the climate might be for the developing countries that will be hardest hit by the effects of climate change.

Dubai is getting so good at simulating the outdoors inside that its next megaproject is dedicated to just that.

Dubai Square, set to become the world’s largest mall, is built around a four-lane “boulevard” that mimics a wide city street, a piazza, and an entertainment center for concerts and theatre shows. It will even have the Middle East’s largest Chinatown.

Concept illustration of 'The Boulevard' (Dubai Holdings)Concept illustration of ‘The Boulevard’ (Dubai Holdings)

“[In the UAE] the mall is a social space, not just a shopping space,” Justin Thomas, an associate professor of psychology at Zayed University, wrote for The National in 2014.

“The mall is where three generations of the same family take an evening stroll; the mall is where the Abu Dhabi Readers (a book club) meet to discuss works of literature.”

When you can’t hang out in social spaces outside, whether it’s due to a severe climate or pollution, you find indoor spaces to do so.

It’s hard to say that’s de-facto bad when such malls and climate-controlled spaces are providing livable spaces outside of the home in a city that desperately needs them. But there is a creeping feeling that something is lost when all public spaces exist solely so large corporations can make a profit.

If I was going to take a guess at where our hyper-consumerist world is heading in the event the world can’t get its act together on climate change, I’d say it’s going to look a lot like Dubai.

And Dubai, for its part, will have to keep adapting to its extreme climate. The Environment Agency Abu Dhabi found in a report last year that under its most severe climate change scenario, nearly all of Dubai would be underwater due to rising sea levels.

This article is from ScienceAlert’s new Voice section, where we approach science with a more personal touch. The views reflected here don’t necessarily reflect the views of the publication.

This article was originally published by Business Insider.

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The warm water fish making their way to British waters

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Previously unseen species like the scorpion fish have the potential to become more common in Channel Islands waters, the book’s authors say

Rising sea temperatures have seen new fish species become established in waters around the British Isles, research has shown.

Scientific records, archives and contemporary reports have been combined to build a picture of marine life in waters around the Channel Islands.

Since the 1990s a “new wave” of fish species has been regularly recorded, the research’s authors say.

New visitors include Atlantic bonito, and species of jack and bream.

The increase in certain types of fish is being linked to a rise in sea temperatures – with waters around Jersey, the largest of the islands, seeing a 1C rise since 1960.

The Atlantic bonito, a popular eating fish similar to a mackerel, have been caught regularly by anglers in summer months, authors of Marine Fish of the Channel Islands say.

“Some people go to Florida and they go bonito fishing, so it’s a big surprise that every single summer anglers around Jersey, anglers around Guernsey are catching these fish,” author Alex Plaster said.

The marine geography graduate worked with Paul Chambers, a Channel Islands marine expert and author, to delve into fish records going back to the 1800s.

More Channel Islands news.

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Atlantic bonito (left), couch’s bream (centre) and grey triggerfish (right) are Mediterranean species found in the Channel Islands

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Overfishing has seen once common species such as monkfish (pictured), skate and spurdog largely disappear from island waters, while other cold water species have moved further north, the authors say

Other trends, including the re-emergence of the endangered bluefin tuna, were unlikely to be linked to rising sea temperatures but warming seas were the main driver behind changing fish behaviour, Mr Plaster added.

“It’s the winters where you’re seeing a massive difference in sea temperatures.

“This is allowing some species to stay almost year-round, and also we’re getting more and more species from the south – almost Mediterranean waters,” he said.

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The Channel Islands include the southernmost point in the British Isles, called Les Minquiers, a group of rocks about nine miles (14.4 km) south of Jersey

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Getty Images/Swedishmonica

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Flying fish (pictured) and bramble sharks are some of the more unusual visitors to the Channel Islands’ waters

Research from the University of Southampton has also suggested new kinds of shark – including the great hammerhead, blacktip, and oceanic whitetip – could migrate to UK waters as the oceans warm.

Other new species found in the Channel Islands include the Atlantic saury and spotted sea bass, which are being caught by anglers in summer months.

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Greg Whitehead

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This 9ft (2.7m) long bluefin tuna was caught off Guernsey in 2018

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National Action trial: Members of neo-Nazi group jailed

Claudia Patatas and Adam Thomas, holding their baby and a Swastika flagImage copyright
West Mids Police

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Claudia Patatas and Adam Thomas were members of National Action after it was banned under terrorism laws in December 2016

A couple who named their baby after Adolf Hitler and were convicted of being members of a banned terrorist group have been jailed.

Adam Thomas, 22, and Claudia Patatas, 38, from Banbury, along with Daniel Bogunovic, 27, from Leicester, were part of National Action.

Birmingham Crown Court heard the couple gave their child the middle name Adolf in “admiration” of Hitler.

The men were jailed for more than six years and Patatas for five.

In total six people were sentenced for being part of what Judge Melbourne Inman QC described as as a group with “horrific aims”.

Darren Fletcher, 28, from Wolverhampton, Nathan Pryke, 27, from March, Cambridgeshire, and Joel Wilmore, 24, from Stockport, also pleaded guilty to being in National Action.

Fletcher has been sentenced to five years, Pryke to five years and five months and Wilmore for five years and 10 months.

The judge said of National Action: “It’s aims and objectives are the overthrow of democracy in this country by serious violence and murder and the imposition of a Nazi-style state that would eradicate whole sections of society.”

In sentencing Patatas, he added: “You were equally as extreme as Thomas both in your views and actions.

“You acted together in all you thought, said and did, in the naming of your son and the disturbing photographs of your child, surrounded by symbols of Nazism and the Ku Klux Klan.”

During the trial the court heard Fletcher trained his toddler daughter to perform a Nazi salute for the camera.

Jurors also saw images of Thomas wearing Ku Klux Klan robes while cradling his baby, which he claimed were “just play” but he admitted being a racist.

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West Midlands Police/PA Wire

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Adam Thomas said he first discovered a “fascination” with Ku Klux Klan aged 11

Thomas was also found guilty of having a copy of terrorist manual the Anarchist Cookbook.

A police search of the home he shared with Patatas in January uncovered machetes and crossbows – one kept just a few feet from the baby’s crib.

A pastry cutter shaped like a swastika was found in a kitchen drawer, as well as pendants, flags and clothing emblazoned with symbols of the Nazi-era SS and National Action.

The Neo-Nazi terrorist group National Action, founded in 2013, was outlawed under anti-terror legislation in 2016 after it celebrated the murder of Labour MP Jo Cox.

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Daniel Bogunovic, Adam Thomas and Claudia Patatas were all jailed

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BA to resume flights to Pakistan

Islamabad's new airport opened this yearImage copyright

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Islamabad’s new airport opened this year

British Airways is to restart flights to Pakistan next year, more than 10 years after it halted services following a major hotel bombing.

The airline stopped flying to the country after the Marriott hotel in the capital, Islamabad, was bombed in 2008, killing more than 50 people.

BA will be the first Western airline to resume services to the country.

A new airport was opened recently in Islamabad, which has eased concerns about both security and congestion.

The attack on the Marriott was one of the most high-profile attacks in Pakistan’s history.

Thomas Drew, the British High Commissioner to Pakistan, said BA’s return was a “reflection of the great improvements” in security.

BA’s Robert Williams said: “It’s exciting to be flying between Islamabad and Heathrow from next year, which we believe will be particularly popular with the British Pakistani community who want to visit, or be visited by, their relatives.”

More than a million people of Pakistani origin live in the UK.

BA, which is owned by airline group IAG, aims to run three flights a week, starting on 2 June.

Currently, Pakistan’s PIA is the only airline to run direct flights from Pakistan to Britain.

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